To conquer the hazardous wellbeing impact of fluorosis, different approaches for fluoridation exist like coagulation – precipitation, membrane separation processes, ion exchange (IX), adsorption techniques, and others (electro-dialysis and electrochemical). Each approach have their advantages and limitations and worked productively under the ideal condition to remove the fluoride to the more noteworthy range. All the above approaches are examined briefly with their advantages and limitations.
Fluoride can be removed from water supplies with a strong fundamental anion exchange resin containing quaternary ammonium functional groups. The removal takes place according to the following reaction:
The F ions substitute the Cl ions of the resin. This process proceeds until every one of the sites on the resin is possessed. The resin is then back-washed with water that is supersaturated with dissolved sodium chloride salt. New Cl ions then substitute the F ions prompting recharge of the resin and beginning the process once more. The driving force for the substitution of chloride ions from the resin is the stronger electronegativity of the F ions.
The point of interest and restriction of the IX technique are given below:
1. High productivity (90-95 % fluoride removal).
2. Retains the superiority of water.
1. pH of treated water is low and contains high concentration of chloride.
2. Interference because of the presence of other anions like sulfate, carbonate, phosphate, and alkalinity.
3. Regeneration of resin is an issue on the grounds that it prompts fluoride-rich waste, which must be dealt with before the last disposal.
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